Open Access Original Research Article

Antibiofilm Activity of Ethanolic Extracts from Nypa fruticans and Pleurotus ostreatus against Produced Water Biofilm

H. O. Stanley, E. Okhuahesogie, C. J. Ugboma

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/39568

Introduction: Microorganisms adhere to various surfaces by means of biofilms which make them resistant to antibiotic treatment. The antibiofilm activity of the ethanolic extracts from Nypa fruticans and Pleurotus ostreatus were tested against biofilm attached on Polyvinylchloride (PVC) slides, using produced water as aqueous medium.

Methods: Ten (10 g) of dry powder from dried N. fruticans and P. ostreatus was extracted with 50% ethanol (100 ml) using a shaker. Five (5 ml) of ethanolic extract was introduced into each test conical flask and biofilm was allowed to stand for two (2) hours and the PVC slides are removed for biofilm examination. Biofilm mass assessment was carried out by direct comparison of mass of samples (before extract application) and test samples (after extract application). Biofilm protein constituent was assessed using the Modified Lowry method while the polysaccharide constituent was assessed using the phenol-sulphuric acid method. Agar well diffusion assay was utilized in assessing the susceptibility of biofilm microorganisms.

Results: Staphylococcus spp was highly susceptible to extract from Nypa fruticans with zone of inhibition of 16mm. Polysaccharide content was highly denatured by N. fruticans extract with a reduction in polysaccharide content of 60% when compared with polysaccharide constituent before application of extracts. The use of both extracts showed more effectiveness in reducing 65% of the biofilm mass. Analysis of variance revealed that the difference between mass of biofilms on PVC slides before application of extract and mass of biofilm on PVC slides after application is significant (P= 0.05).­

Conclusion: Ethanolic extracts from N. fruticans and P. ostreatus could be considered in the control of biofilms and the utilization of more than a single extract will be more potent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of the Bacterial Community Structure in a Crude Oil-inundated Tropical Soil Using Next Generation Sequencing Technique

T. Sampson, C. J. Ogugbue, G. C. Okpokwasili

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/41605

Aim: To identify the community composition of a crude oil impacted soil in Gbarain Kingdom of Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

Study Design: A crude oil-impacted soil sample (0-10 cm depth) was collected from Etelebuo-Ogboloma, flow station in Yenagoa L.G.A. of Bayelsa State and taken to the laboratory for various microbiological analyses.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, for 35 days.

Methodology: Cultural morphology of the isolates was studied based on their physical appearances such as colour, shape, size, elevation and margin. While catalase test, oxidase test, indole test, motility test, Methyl-Red Voges-Proskauer’s (MRVP) test and citrate utilization test were used for the biochemical identification of the isolates. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction from crude oil polluted soil sample was performed using ZYMO soil DNA extraction Kit (Model D 6001, Zymo Research, USA) following the manufacturer’s instructions. DNA sequencing was performed by the Next Generation Sequencing Technique to determine the nucleotide sequence of all microorganisms present in the soil sample using sequencing primer -16S: 27F: 5’-GAGTTTGATCCTGGCTCAG-3’ and 518R: 5’- ATTACCGCGGCTGCTGG-3’.

Results: Five different bacterial genera were isolated and identified using the cultural techniques, and they include Acetobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., Arthrobacter sp., Bacillus sp. and Micrococcus sp. However, the molecular characterization revealed that the soil was mainly dominated by the Alphaproteobacteria (54.64%), followed by the Actinobacteria (9.67%), Gammaproteobacteria (6.55%), Betaproteobacteria (2.27%) and Bacilli (0.95%) as well as Clostridia (0.34%); as the most dominant class of bacteria. The unknown group accounted for 25.28%. A total of one hundred and four (104) diverse bacterial species were identified, in the overall metagenomics.

Conclusion: This study has shown the bacterial community composition of the crude oil polluted soil obtained from the Gbarain Kingdom. These findings are fundamental to understanding the biological fate of crude oil in these oil rich regions. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Growth and Development of Pleurotus florida against Wastes from Animal Origin

Siddhant ., O. P. Ukaogo, Mahesh Kumar, Shyam Singh

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/42270

Two wastes from animal origin, viz., human hairs and egg shells were evaluated for different manifestations of white oyster mushroom, Pleurotus florida. The mushroom utilized both the substrates for their growth and sporophore formation. The mycelial growth was significantly (P=0.05) faster on egg shell (18 days) as compared to human hair (23 days). The crop of mushroom was harvested in four flushes where human hairs showed higher yield and biological efficiency of mushroom (165 gm, 33%) than egg shells (155 gm, 31%), respectively. In respect of yield parameters such as yield, biological efficiency, number of mushroom fruit bodies and average weight of sporophores, both the substrates were statistically at par to each other. Utilization of human hairs and egg shells by P. florida reveals a new strategy for mycoremediation of these wastes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Antiplasmodial and Anti-anaemic Activities of Hoslundia opposita, an Ivorian Medicinal Plant

Karamoko Chérif Moustapha, Tuo Karim, Toure André Offianan, Beourou Sylvain, Attemene Dago Serge David, Gnondjui Alloh Albert, Yao Serge Stéphane, Bidie Alain Dit Philippe

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/41897

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the antiplasmodial and anti-anaemic activities of different extracts of Hoslundia opposita

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out from March to November at Institut Pasteur of Côte d’Ivoire.

Methodology: Extracts of Hoslundia opposita were prepared using various solvents. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity was investigated on both clinical isolates and Chloroquine-resistant K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum, using SYBR green I based assay. Moreover, the anti-anaemic activity was assessed on phenyl hydrazine induced anaemia in albino rats.

Results: Two (2) among the five (5) extracts were not active. However, the hydroethanolic, aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts exhibited a moderate (IC50= [22.88 – 49.65] μg/mL), promising (IC50= [5.99 – 12.1] μg/mL), and very active (IC50= 1.57 μg/mL) on clinical isolates. The hydroethanolic and aqueous extracts showed a promising antiplasmodial activity (IC50= 11.68 and 12.23 μg/mL respectively) on Chloroquine-resistant K1 strain of P. falciparum. Whereas, the ethyl acetate extract exhibited a potent activity (IC50= 0.78 μg/mL) on it. Extract showing good antiplasmodial activity were used for in vivo anti-anaemic test. Among selected extracts, the hydroethanolic extract was the most active with hematologic recovery percentages better than those of vitamin B12.

Conclusion and Prospect: Hoslundia opposita could be a potential source for new antimalarial drugs. Furthermore, this plant extract might be used as an improved traditional medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of a Competition Model for Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis in Mixed Culture: A Mathematical Analysis

Md. Kamrujjaman, Mohammad Shahnoor Hossain

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2018/41344

A competitive mathematical model for the growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus
sanguis is developed in this study. The main goal of this paper is to investigate the roles of
two different growth laws: The logistic growth and the Smith growth to determine the competition
outcome between two organisms in a given micro-ecological domain. We demonstrated that the
competitive exclusion of a food limited bacteria is inevitable based on resource availability of species
following the logistic growth. If the resource utilization capacity is equal then there is a possible
coexistence and both bacteria co-operate with each other. This model can be used as a basic
competition model for the prediction of the outcome of growth between any others microorganisms.