Open Access Original Research Article

Bacteriological and Histopathological Studies on Pulmonary Lesions of Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Sudan

Muna, E. Ahmed, A. M. Zakia, A. M. Abeer, Manal, H. Salih, M. O. Halima, Ishraga G. Ibrahim, Hala, A. M. Ibrahim

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/35855

Aims: To isolate and identify the aerobic bacteria associated with pulmonary lesions and study the histopathological changes.

Study Design: Fourty-five sections of pneumonic lungs  from one humped camels with different sex and ages ranging from (6 months -15 years) and originated from different states of the Sudan including Kassala, AlGadarif, Kordofan and Darfur, were subjected to bacteriological and histopathological studies.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was undertaken in the Departments of Bacteriology and Pathology, Central Veterinary Research Laboratory, Ministry of Animal Resource and Fisheries, Khartoum, Sudan in 2015.

Methodology: The isolates were fully confirmed by full biochemical identification using conventional and automated techniques which were API kits and full automated system Vitek2 compact and the histopathological lesions were studied using H&E stain.

Results: Eighty bacterial isolates were recovered, they were: 15 (18.75%) S. aureus, 7 (8.75%)         S. epidermedius, 5 (6.25%) S. warrner, 1 (1.25%) S. heamolyticus, 6 (7.5%) Str. pneumonia,          5 (6.25%) Str. pyogenes, 1 (1.25%) Str. suis 11 (13.75) E. coli, 3 (3.75%) Coryneulcerans,             1 (1.25%) C. amycolatum, 1 (1.25%) Actinomyces naeslandii, Actinomyces pyogenes, 9 (11.25%) K. pneumonia, 7 (8.75%) Ps. aeruginosa, 2 (2.5%) Aeromonas salmonicida, 1 (1.25%) Burkhorderia cepacia, 2 (2.5%) Bacillus and 1 (1, 25%) Facklamia hominis. The histopathological changes observed were emphysema with an incidence of 25 (55.6%), atelectasis in 24 (53.3%), hemorrhage in 20 (44.4%), edema in 19 (42.2%), inflammatory changes represented byfibrinous pneumonia in 25 (55.6%), Purulent bronchopneumonia in 13 (28.9%), spirasion pneumonia in 10 (22.2%), interstitial pneumonia 9 (20%) and abscesses in 4 (8.9%) and Tumors in 3 (6.7%).

Conclusions: Pneumonia in camel is complex multifactorial disease in which bacterial, viral, mycoplasma and fungal infections combine with other predisposing factors such as rearing systems, stress factors, climatic changes, and unhygienic conditions. Identification of the pneumonic pathogens in the present work cleared that S. aureus, was the most pneumonic bacteria isolated from lung tissue at rate of 18.75%.


Open Access Original Research Article

Screening a Saliva Repository for Scardovia wiggsiae and Streptococcus mutans: A Pilot Study

Jaydene McDaniel, Steven McDaniel, Amy Tam, Karl Kingsley, Katherine M. Howard

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/36111

Introduction: Many studies have evaluated the prevalence of cariogenic pathogens among dental school patients, most notably the Gram-positive organism Streptococcus mutans (SM). Recent evidence has suggested another cariogenic pathogen Scardovia wiggsiae (SW) may also be present in the oral flora of a smaller subset of dental patients. 

Objective: Few studies to date have examined the corresponding prevalence of both SM and SW within the same patient samples, therefore the main objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of these cariogenic organisms within a dental school-based setting.

Experimental Methods: Screening was facilitated using DNA extracted from a pre-existing patient saliva repository and processed using qPCR.  SW-positive (n=27) and SW-negative (n=15) samples were subsequently screened for the presence of SM. The samples were nearly evenly divided between males and females (45%, 55%, respectively) and were mostly Hispanic minorities (n=22/42 or 52%).

Results: This analysis revealed that 45% of samples (n=19/42) also harbored SM. More detailed analysis revealed that the vast majority of SM-positive samples (n=15/19 or 79%) were derived from SW-positive samples, while only a small percentage of SM-positive samples (n=4/19 or 21%) were derived from SW-negative samples. 

Conclusions: The limited numbers of studies available regarding SW prevalence have suggested that SW and SM may inhabit similar and overlapping niches within the oral microbiome. In fact, some work has suggested the potential for competition and interactive inhibition between these organisms within the oral cavity. The preliminary data from this pilot study suggest SM and SW may, in fact, be present in the same patients and may not therefore be exclusively competitive – at least in this cross sectional study.  However, due to the large differences observed among these samples, further research will be needed to further elucidate and validate these findings.


Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Probiotics on Intestinal Microflora of HIV-infected Individuals

K. Gorobchenko

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/34492

Aims: HIV-1 infection results in structural damage to the intestinal mucosa and changes of gut microflora following dysfunction of the gastrointestinal system, including compromised barrier function. Known properties of probiotics suggest that they may be useful tools in restoring normal intestinal flora. Our study goal was to determine whether the use of a probiotics can recover normal gut flora in chronically HIV-infected adults.

Study Design: Cohort Design.

Place and Duration of Study: Sumy State University, Medical Institute. Department of Microbiology and Clinical Immunology.

Methodology: The study involved 40 HIV-1-infected patients of the regional center of prevention and control of AIDS in Kharkov. All the patients were informed about the purpose and plan of study and gave their written agreement to participate in the study. All the patients had been diagnosed according to the criteria of WHO with the III-IV stage of HIV infection. During the month before the survey the patients did not take any antibiotics. Dysbiosis correction circuit was designed for one month taking of probiotic preparations. Six weeks later the follow-up study was conducted to investigate gut microflora of 20 HIV-infected patients.

Results: Changes of intestinal microbiota were found in all of the patients. In the most cases the decrease of obligatory microorganisms, especially Bifidobacterium spp. (in 90% of patients) was found. Overgrowth of major opportunistic pathogens (S. aureus and Candida spp.) was registered in only a minority of patients. The probiotic interventions resulted in significantly elevated levels of beneficial bacteria load (such as Bifidobacterium spp, Lactobacillus spp.) and a decrease in patogenic bacteria load (such as Clostridium spp, Candida spp).

Conclusion: Probiotic preparations can successfully augment the levels of beneficial species in the gut during chronic HIV-1 infection. These findings may help inform future studies aimed at testing pre- and probiotic approaches to improve gut function and mucosal immunity in chronic HIV-1 infection.


Open Access Review Article

Aspergillus Xylanases

Hooi Ling Ho

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/33936

There has been tremendous growth and development in the use of xylanase in the biotechnology industry. The market trends reveal that xylanase takes major position of share up to 20% of the world enzymes market along with cellulases and pectinases. In fact, xylanase has become one of the major industrial enzymes in the pulp and paper industry as bio-bleaching agent. Besides that, xylanase is also used in the production of detergents and beverages. In the feed industry, enzyme preparation containing xylanases is used to improve the digestibility of animal feed. Furthermore, xylanase is added to swine and poultry cereal-based diets to improve absorption of nutrients. Additionally, xylanase is used in the modifications of flour in bakery products as well as in the saccharification of agricultural, municipal and industrial waste materials. Most commercial enzymes including xylanase are produced in submerged and solid state fermentation. Submerged fermentation is performed by culturing microorganisms in a liquid medium containing required nutrients with specific composition, volume and concentration. In contrast, solid state fermentation is defined as growth of microorganisms on a layer of moist solid substrate without presence of any free flowing water yet with enough moisture for growth and metabolism of microorganisms. Aspergillus spp, indeed, A. brasiliensis is a filamentous ascomycete fungus that has been widely used in the biotechnology field for xylanase production. The production of xylanase from fungal cultures is relatively high compared to the ones from bacteria and yeasts. As a result, the most desirable xylanases are produced by filamentous fungi known as fungal xylanases particularly Aspergillus xylanases where they have been involved in many industries for decades.


Open Access Review Article

Viral Targeted Gene Therapy and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Possible Therapeutic Prospects and Drawbacks

O. I. Afolami, A. K. Onifade

Journal of Advances in Microbiology, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JAMB/2017/35944

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of liver cancer-related death in humans; it can be a malignant or localized tumor of liver cells (hepatocytes) and development is by a multistep complex process called Hepatocarcinogenesis. Etiological agents of HCC include liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus and or hepatitis C virus infection, alcoholism, exposure to dietary carcinogenic aflatoxins and hemochromatosis. HCC may also result from production of aberrant hepatocytes and the formation of dysplastic nodules. Recent researches have revealed the involvement of aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression and liver-specific cancer stem cells (CSCs) in HCC development. The progression of hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with multiple molecular mechanisms that involve genetic, epigenetic, and cell signaling alterations. DNA Methylation, an important epigenetic event in human carcinogenesis has been studied extensively to understand the mechanisms underlying HCC progression for optimized clinical management of HCC and the development of new therapeutic approaches to the disease. Despite current progress with the treatment of human cancers, existing therapies are limited in their abilities to cure HCC and fatality still remains high. Hence, this review critically examine the prospects of viral targeted gene therapy for effective management of HCC and the current drawbacks encountered in the use of viral vectors for immunotherapy of various human metastatic cancer stem cell forms.