Journal of Advances in Microbiology 2020-10-20T04:33:33+00:00 Journal of Advances in Microbiology Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal &nbsp;of Advances in Microbiology&nbsp;(ISSN:&nbsp;2456-7116)&nbsp;</strong>aims to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JAMB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of Microbiology. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> Occurrence and Diversity of Soil Microflora in Potato Fields of Bangladesh 2020-10-19T13:58:14+00:00 M. A. Nitu M. Rahaman F. M. Aminuzzaman N. Sultana <p>Microflora from potato rhizosphere soil was isolated from different potato fields of Bangladesh. Seventeen soil samples were analyzed for the presence of microflora in selected potato field soils. Seven fungal species and one bacterium species were morphologically characterized using soil dilution and streak plate methods. The predominant fungi isolated including <em>Alternaria </em>sp., <em>Aspergillus </em>sp., <em>Penicillium </em>sp., <em>Rhizopus </em>sp., <em>Bipolaris </em>sp., <em>Phytophthora </em>sp., <em>Fusarium </em>sp. and one bacterium was identified as <em>Ralstonia solanacearum</em>. Individual colonies of fungi and bacteria were counted on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), V8 juice Agar and their presence in soil was compared in respect of different locations of potato fields. The occurrence of <em>Phytophthora</em> sp. was medium in Tongibari and lower in Singair Union, Sonargaon, Matlab Dakshin, Gobindaganj, Palashbari, Gopinathpur and Bagmara. The highest counts of <em>R. solanacearum</em> were found in Singair Union, Tongibari and Daudkandi and the lowest counts were made in Palashbari and Bagmara. This was the first reported examination of the microbial diversity of soil microflora in some selected potato fields of Bangladesh.</p> 2020-09-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Microbiological Analysis and Identification of Pathogenic Microorganisms on Currency Notes (Congolese Francs) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2020-10-19T13:58:09+00:00 Jeff Bekomo Iteku Donel Moswala Likabo Aaron Lelo Pambu Gédéon Ngiala Bongo Ruth Katunda Octavie Metila Lunguya Joseph Kasali Lumande <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The incidence of infectious diseases is still a vital concern in developing countries. Recently, hygienists have focused on the risk of transmitted diseases through currency notes. This study aims at the determination of potential pathogenic microorganisms found on the Congolese Francs currency notes circulating in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of the Study:</strong> This study was carried out in Kinshasa city, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo between September 3 and 29, 2019 at the Bacteriology Laboratory of the National Institute for Biomedical Research.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> During this study, 36 currency notes of different denominations have been used for microbiological analysis. Currency notes were collected from vendors of the Central market and currency note dealers at Kintambo Magasin market in Kinshasa. The identification of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) was performed using gram staining and biochemical analyses. <strong>Results:</strong> The findings reveal the presence of following microorganisms, namely <em>Bacillus</em> spp, <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Staphylococcus</em> spp., <em>Enterobacter</em> spp, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Serratia spp</em>, <em>Citrobacter spp, Salmonella enteritidis</em> as well as molds on the Congolese currency notes. It should be observed that circulated currency notes in Kinshasa are contaminated by bacteria and fungi. The contamination rate was based on the fact, that money is new, clean or dirty.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Congolese currency notes constitute the potential sources of infectious disease transmission if hygienic conditions are not respected. Molecular studies are required in order to determine the antibiotic resistance gene of these microorganisms. As the population does not know how to store these notes properly, their contamination would eventually become a major public health hazard. Therefore, a need of an awareness of the population in order to apply hygienic rules while handling currency notes. This is for the first time that such a study is being carried out in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.</p> 2020-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Production and Characterization of Polyhydroxyalkanoates from Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Dairy Wastewater, Fermented Cow Milk and ‘Ogi’ 2020-10-19T13:58:05+00:00 Wakil Sherifah Monilola Oluwatobi Esther Makinde <p><strong>Aims:</strong> This study aimed at screening, producing and characterizing polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from dairy wastewater, fermented cow milk and “ogi”.</p> <p>Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan between August 2018 and February 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The initial screening of isolated LAB was carried out by Sudan Black staining method followed by secondary screening on liquid medium. Isolates that tested positive for Sudan Black stain and had the highest PHA yield from liquid medium was used for further analysis. The cell walls of selected isolates were lysed with sodium hypochlorite and PHA extracted using chloroform. Optimization of PHA production was carried out using different carbon and nitrogen sources, incubation temperature, pH and agitation speed. Extracted PHA was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and the microstructure and surface morphology were observed using Scanning Electron Microscope.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Seven isolates tested positive for Sudan Black stain of which two isolates identified as Lactobacillus plantarum CW10 and Lactobacillus casei WWD3 had the highest PHA yield from liquid medium. From the optimization experiment, highest PHA production was observed in Lactobacillus plantarum CW10 (20.5%) and Lactobacillus casei WWD3 (19.7%) when glucose and ammonium sulphate was used as carbon and nitrogen sources respectively, and at pH 6, agitation speed of 200 rpm and incubation temperature of 35oC and 40oC. The spectra of extracted PHA as characterized by FTIR showed absorption peaks for the carbonyl, C-H, -OH, aliphatic -CH3 and ester groups that are characteristics of PHA. The microstructure and surface morphology shows grains that are pseudo-spherical in shape with fairly regular distribution.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There is an appreciable production of PHA from the Lactobacillus strains and can be considered as part of the choice of organisms for PHA production in commercial quantity.</p> 2020-10-03T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Production, Preservation and Shelf-Life Evaluation of Wine from Banana Fruit (Musa acuminata Colla) 2020-10-19T13:58:12+00:00 O. P. Obiekezie B. J. O. Efiuvwevwere O. C. Eruteya <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The investigation focused on production, preservation and shelf-life study of wine from banana fruit (<em>Musa acuminata</em>).</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> This work is based on completely randomized design with two replications and the average values calculated for mean comparison.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Food and Industrial Microbiology laboratory, Department of Microbiology, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, September, 2018 to March, 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Analyses performed using standard methods were microbiological, physicochemical and sensory evaluations. Sodium benzoate concentrations of 5 and 25 ppm were used for shelf life studies. Banana ‘must’ was analyzed at 4 day intervals for 12 days while produced wine was analyzed at 5 day intervals for 25 days during storage.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Changes in total heterotrophic counts (THCs), total coliform counts (TCCs) and fungal counts (FCs) occurred during fermentation, resulting in maximum THCs of 5.02, TCCs of 3.60 and FCs of 8.87 log<sub>10</sub> cfu ml<sup>-1</sup> on days 4, 4 and 8 respectively. <em>Acetobacter </em>and <em>Saccharomyces </em>were pronounced in wine without preservative (control) throughout storage. Mean pH of ‘must’ was 5.8±0.30 while alcohol content was 0.28±0.03% on day 0 but as fermentation progressed, mean pH was reduced while mean alcohol content increased. Mean pH of wine preserved with 5 ppm varied slightly throughout storage but mean pH of control and 25 ppm preserved wine decreased from 3.7±0.20 on day 0 to 3.2±0.23 on day 25. Sensory attributes (overall acceptability) on day 12 was most preferred while during shelf-life studies, significant difference in overall acceptability of the different wines at <em>P</em>=.05 occurred. Wine preserved with 5 ppm had the best organoleptic quality but 25 ppm preserved wine showed the most acceptable microbial quality.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Findings show that banana is a good substrate for wine production and 5 ppm sodium benzoate retained the qualities of the wine.</p> 2020-09-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antifungal Resistance Pattern of Candida Species Isolated from High Vaginal Swabs of Women Attending a Hospital in Enugu State, Nigeria 2020-10-19T13:58:02+00:00 Joachim Ohiakwu Ezeadila Ikechukwu Okoli Christie Amaechi Oyeka <p>There is an increase in non-albicans <em>Candida</em> (NAC) vulvovaginal candidiasis which is attributed to overuse of antifungal therapy and this has led to antifungal resistance. This study was aimed at determining the antifungal resistance pattern of some clinical isolates of <em>Candida</em> species. Eighty-eight (88) isolates were used which included <em>Candida tropicalis</em> (34), <em>Candida Parapsilosis</em> (21), <em>Candida albicans</em> (20), <em>Candida krusei</em> (7) and <em>Candida glabrata</em> (6). The drugs used were Fluconazole (25µg), Ketoconazole (10µg), Voriconazole (1µg), Nystatin (100Units), Amphotericin B (20µg), Flucytosine (1µg), Clotrimazole (10µg) and Itraconazole (50µg). The susceptibility testing was carried out using the M44-A standard method for yeast disk diffusion testing. Results showed that the percentages of <em>Candida</em> species resistant to Fluconazole, Ketoconazole, Voriconazole, Amphotericin B, Flucytosine, Clotrimazole and Itraconazole and Nystatin were 52.3%, 61.9%, 35.2%, 19.3%, 86.4%, 34.1%,&nbsp; 45.5% and 44.3%,&nbsp; with inhibition zone diameters ≤14mm, ≤20mm, ≤13mm, &lt;10mm, ≤11mm, ≤11mm, ≤13mm and no inhibition zone diameter respectively. <em>Candida krusei </em>was the most resistant species with 100% resistance to each of Fluconazole, Ketoconazole and Flucytosine. <em>Candida tropicalis</em> was the species with the highest susceptibility (79.4%) to Amphotericin B followed by <em>Candida parapsilosis </em>with inhibition zone diameters ≥15mm. While <em>Candida glabrata</em> showed 100% resistance to each of Flucytosine and Itraconazole, <em>Candida albicans</em> showed 100% resistance to Flucytosine only.<em> Candida glabrata</em> was the only <em>Candida</em> species with 0% resistance to Amphotericin B. The drug to which most of the <em>Candida</em> species were susceptible was Amphotericin B followed by Voriconazole while Flucytosine was the drug with the highest resistance followed by Ketoconazole and Fluconazole. The highest number of susceptible-dose dependent <em>Candida</em> isolates was observed with Ketoconazole (25%), followed by Clotrimazole and Itraconazole, each recording 23.9%. Based on the findings of the present study, Voriconazole is recommended for vaginal candidiasis especially in the study area and also especially for infections caused by Fluconazole-resistant <em>Candida</em> species. This suggests that routine sensitivity testing is pertinent to guiding the choice of antifungal therapy. Thus, indiscriminate use of antifungal drugs should be avoided to reduce the development and spread of resistance.</p> 2020-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Predicting the Toxicities of Ternary Mixtures of two Metals and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate to Serratia marcescens (SerEW01) from Otamiri River Water 2020-10-20T04:33:33+00:00 Reuben N. Okechi Edna I. Chukwura Christian O. Nweke <p><strong>Background:</strong> Otamiri river server as a source of water for domestic activities, urban farming, recreation, aquatic foods in Owerri and environs. It also receives untreated domestic, industrial and agricultural waste water and run offs from the municipality. Seepages from solid wastes dumps at the river banks and sand mining activity going on in the river could also constitute environmental hazards</p> <p><strong>Aims:</strong> This study aims at evaluating the interactive effects of the ternary mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and some divalent metals on preponderant bacterium (<em>Serratia marcescens</em> (SerEW01)) from the river.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Fixed ratio ray design was used for the study, with inhibition of dehydrogenase activity as end point.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> &nbsp;&nbsp; Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria, June – December, 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The bacterium was earlier isolated as the preponderant bacterium isolate from the river water. Fixed ratio ternary mixtures (Equieffect concentration (EEC50) and arbitrary concentration (ABCR) ratios), SDS + Pb + Zn, SDS + Cd +Zn, SDS + Pb +Ni, SDS + Ni + Cd, SDS + Co + Pb and SDS + Co + Cd were designed to evaluate the combined toxicities of these toxicants. Toxicities predicted by concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) models were compared with the experimentally observed toxicities.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The <em>EC<sub>50</sub></em><sub>S</sub> observed ranged from 0.046 ± 0.003 mM (Zn) to 2.329 ± 0.092 mM (SDS). The EC<sub>50S</sub> of the toxicants were statistically different from each other (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05). The order of increasing toxicities were SDS &gt;Pb &gt;Ni &gt; Co &gt; Cd(II) &gt;Zn. Concentration-dependent toxicities with progressive inhibition of the dehydrogenase activity as the concentration increased were observed.. In all ternary mixtures, both the experimentally derived, CA and IA-predicted <em>EC<sub>50</sub></em><sub>S</sub> were statistically different from each other. Both models predicted lower toxicities compared to the experimental data. The Toxic Index and Model Deviation Ratio indicated synergistic interaction of SDS and metal ions against <em>S. marcescens</em> (SerEW01)</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study could constitute base line information towards assessing the possible environmental hazards associated with co-contamination of the environment by SDS and divalent heavy metals, more so when both pollutants are common aquatic pollutants.</p> 2020-10-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##