Journal of Advances in Microbiology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal &nbsp;of Advances in Microbiology&nbsp;(ISSN:&nbsp;2456-7116)&nbsp;</strong>aims to publish&nbsp;high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JAMB/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>)&nbsp;in all areas of Microbiology. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.&nbsp;</p> en-US (Journal of Advances in Microbiology) (Journal of Advances in Microbiology) Fri, 03 Apr 2020 08:50:56 +0000 OJS 60 Phenotypic Variation of Tobramycin and Ofloxacin Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Repeated Exhibition <p><em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> has the ability to resist almost all available antibiotics by rapidly accumulating multiple resistance mechanisms and thus lead to a therapeutic impasse and higher mortality in infected patients.</p> <p>The objective of this study was to assess the phenotypic variation in resistance to tobramycin and ofloxacin from <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> by repeated exhibition after determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration.</p> <p>This is a prospective and descriptive study carried out in the Laboratory of Microbiology of Fundamental and Applied Biochemistry (Faculty of Sciences, Antananarivo) during the month of January 2020. The strains studied were the virulent wild strain of <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> PAO1 supplied by the Laboratory and two clinical strains of <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> from the Microbiology Laboratory of the Joseph Ravoahangy Andrianavalona University Hospital Center, Antananarivo.</p> <p>The strains of <em>P. aeruginosa</em> were cultured in the liquid culture medium (which is Luria Bertani, added with a buffer system of 3- (N-morpholino) propanesulfonic acid (LB-MOPS) which will stabilize the pH and a solid culture medium which is Columbia agar. Repeated exhibition to Tobramycin and Ofloxacin from these strains have been made. The MIC is determined by a visual evaluation of the turbidity of the various wells of the microplate.</p> <p>The MIC value of <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> with tobramycin and ofloxacin is very variable for the initial MIC until the 5th generation after repeated exhibition. More <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>is exposed to an antibiotic many times, the more it develops resistance to this antibiotic, even being sensitive at the start. That is to say, clinically, the dose prescribed for the antibiotic has been greatly exceeded if <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> is repeatedly exposed to the same antibiotic.</p> Andry Maharo Andrianarivelo, Christian Emmanuel Mahavy, Blandine Andrianarisoa, Tsiry Rasamiravaka ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 03 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Screening of Aspergillus and Candida Species with Utmost Potential to Synthesize Citric Acid <p><strong>Background: </strong>Citric acid production through fermentation is economical but meeting its increasing global demand has been challenging in recent times.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This study aimed to screen <em>Aspergillus</em> and <em>Candida</em> sp. isolated from different sources with potentials of producing citric acid.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong><em>Aspergillus</em> and <em>Candida</em> spp. were isolated from compost soil and fruits (cucumber and banana) and their morphological characteristics were described using standard microbiological methods. The isolates were quantitatively screened for citric acid production based on appearance of yellow zone of clearance for 3 days. All the isolates which had acid unitage (AU) values&gt; 5.0 were selected for further characterization using molecular methods.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong><em>Candida tropicalis, Aspergillus </em>sp<em>. A. niger</em> and <em>Penicillium</em> sp. were isolated from the soil and fruit samples. The isolates screened for citric acid production displayed varying diameters of yellow zones around their colonies is indicative of varying capability of the microbial strains. <em>A</em>. <em>niger</em> from compost soil which had highest AU value of 8.5 at Day 3 demonstrated greatest potential to yield citric acid. Molecular characterization revealed high citric acid producing strains as <em>Aspergillus niger</em> (EU440768.1) and <em>Aspergillus welwitschiae </em>(MG669181.1).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Although <em>Aspergillus niger</em> is widely utilized for industrial production of citric acid, this study has demonstrated that <em>A. welwitschiae</em> is a specie of <em>Aspergillus</em> capable of synthesizing citric acid reasonably.</p> G. A. Uzah, N. P. Akani, N. N. Odu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 14 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Growth Rate and Antifungal Activities of Acetone Extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (Scent Leaf) and Allium sativum (Garlic) on Cassava and Banana Peels Formulated Media <p><strong>Aim:</strong>&nbsp;To study the growth rate and antifungal activities of acetone extracts of <em>Ocimum gratissimum</em> (scent leaf) and <em>Allium sativum</em> (garlic) on cassava and banana peels formulated media.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Nine treatments and control designs were set up in triplicates and incubated at 25 &nbsp;for 72 h. The nine treatments and control set ups designated as Cassava Glucose Agar, CGA), Banana Glucose Agar, (BGA) and Control (Potato Dextrose Agar, PDA) were used to screen for the growth rate and antifungal activities of plant extracts.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Microbiology, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli Nigeria between June, 2019 and August, 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The research study was carried on two formulated media obtained from cassava and banana peels and PDA) using proximate analysis, pour plate technique, agar plug diffusion technique and agar well diffusion technique.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results revealed that the cassava and banana peels contained nutrients that can meet the nutritional conditions for fungi cultivation. The PDA statistically (P &lt; 0.05) had higher mean radial growth (32.33 mm) and growth rate (0.449 h<sup>-1</sup>) than BGA (14.33 mm; 0.199 h<sup>-1</sup>) followed by CGA (14.16 mm; 0.197 h<sup>-1</sup>) in most of the test fungal isolates. The scent leaf acetone extract and nystatin antifungal had higher zones of inhibition (25.00 mm) than garlic acetone extract (24.00 mm) on the tested fungal isolates. There was no statistical significance at P &lt; 0.05 on the inhibition zones of the extracts and Nystatin on the formulated media and PDA showing that the extracts possess comparable antifungal activities to the Nystatin.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Thus, our formulated media were comparable to PDA with regards to antifungal activity of the acetone extracts and nystatin and could be utilized as an alternative and cheap ideal reference media for mycological assays.</p> Ebele Linda Okoye, Bright Obidinma Uba, Uzoma Collins Dike, Chimezie Justin Eziefule ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 28 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Toxicological Effects of Petroleum Refinery Sludge on the Terrestial Environment Using Bacteria and Earthworm as Bio Indicators <p><strong>Aim: </strong>The aim of the study is to assess the sublethal (chronic) Ecotoxicological effects ofpetroleum refinery sludge pollution on the biota of the terrestrial environment using the effects on bacteria nitrogen transformation activity and growth rate of the soil fauna, Earthworm (<em>Aporrectodea longa</em>)&nbsp; as bioindicators.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, between 2017 and 2018.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The OECD TG 216 (2000) test method was used to determine the chronic effects (% inhibition and EC<sub>50</sub>) of the petroleum sludge on the nitrogen transformation activity of <em>Nitrobacter sp</em>. in the soil, while the methods of Sandoval et al. [13] and OECD, 207 was used for the chronic effects of the sludge on the growth rate of the earthworms. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the sludge in the earthworms was also determined. Both tests were conducted for 28 days. Results from the test with multiple concentrations were analyzed using a regression model (ANOVA). EC<sub>5O</sub> was also determined using the Probit analytical software. Analyses weredone using ASTM methods.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Analysis of the Nigerian petroleum refinery sludge used for this research indicated that the sludge wasacidic with a pH value of 5.91and had a high TPH content of 340,000 mg/kg made mainly of between 10-40 carbon unit compounds. There was a progressive increase in the percentage (%) inhibition of the nitrogen transformation activitiesof the bacteria, from 18.0% (3125 mg/kg) to 79.30% (5000mg/kg) with increase in concentration and time. The effective concentration that decreased 50% (EC<sub>50</sub>) of the nitrogen transformation activity was 13761.059 mg/kg. The growth rate of the test earthworms decreased from 9.19x10<sup>3 </sup>g/day (375 mg/kg) to 3.55x10<sup>3 </sup>g/day (3000 mg/kg) for the test period. The BCF decreased from 5.168 (375 mg/kg) to 1.22 (3000 mg/kg) in the earthworms, while the EC<sub>50</sub>for the earthworms was 825.02mg/kg as the concentration of the sludge increased with time.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The sludge inhibited the nitrogen transformation activity of <em>Nitrobacter </em>sp. because it exceeded the 25% inhibition limit for chemicals with the potential to cause chronic effects on soil microbial activities as specified in OECD TG 216. Similarly, the sludge reduced the growth rate of the earthworm progressively as the sludge concentration increased in relation to the control. Bioaccumulation factor also increased with increasing sludge concentration and time.</p> Tudararo-Aherobo Laurelta, Atuayan Ernest ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 06 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Lactic Acid on Inactivation of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli (ETEC) Isolated from Tuna Loins Produced in Côte D’Ivoire <p><strong>Aims: </strong>The aim of this work was to study the effect of lactic acid on the growth of pathogenic strains of <em>Escherichia coli</em> (ETEC) isolated from tuna loins.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Bacteriological study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Laboratory of Microbiology of the Central Laboratory of Food hygiene and Agrobusiness (LCHAI), Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire between September 2014 and December 2014.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Enterotoxigenic <em>Escherichia coli</em> (ETEC) strains were isolated from tuna loins. Lactic acid (LA) 1%, 2% and 3% were tested in pathogenic strains in liquid medium (brain heart infusion broth, BHI) and in tuna loins.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>At lactic acid 1%, the bacterial loads decreased during the first two days and then stabilized. <em>E. coli</em> strains in tuna loins were higher (1.25 to 0.9 log CFU/g) than <em>E. coli</em> in liquid medium (0.69 to 0.3 log CFU/g). No bacterial growth was observed in the tuna loins and in BHI for concentrations of 2% and 3% of lactic acid.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Lactic acid has an inhibitory effect at 1% and bactericidal effect at 2% and 3% on the growth of <em>E. coli</em>. The use of lactic acid as a preservative could be a solution for the preservation of these products.</p> Andree Emmanuelle Sika, Yolande Ake-Assi, Therese Anoman, Ollo Kambire, Rose Koffi-Nevry, Koffi Marcellin Dje ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 12 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antibacterial Activity of Honey on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogenes Isolated from Wounds <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To assess the antibacterial activity of crude honey obtained from Ishielu Local Government of Ebonyi State on pathogenic bacterial species (<em>Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli </em>and<em> Staphylococcus pyogenes</em>) isolated from wounds.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>An experimental study which involved a random selection of patients with wound</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria, between February 2019 and November 2019.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A total of 50 samples of wound swabs collected from different sites of open wounds were cultured on blood agar, chocolate agar and MacConkey agar. The crude honey was diluted to concentrations ranging from 20% to 100% and the antibacterial activity was carried out by well diffusion method with augmentin used as a control.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>Out of the 50 samples, 43 showed growth of bacterial species isolated, identified and confirmed using standard bacteriological techniques. <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(60.5%) was the most frequent isolates, followed by <em>Escherichia coli</em> (27.9%) and <em>Streptococcus pyogenes</em> (11.6%). All the tested bacterial isolates were susceptible to the honey and the number of isolates as well as the diameter of zone of inhibition was positively linearly correlated with increasing concentration of the honey (<em>p</em>= 0.00). At 100% honey, 22 (22.25±0.46 mm) out of 26 <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> were susceptible as against 8 (4.62±0.31 mm) at 20% honey.&nbsp; The number of <em>Escherichia coli</em> inhibited at 20% honey was 2 (1.96±0.04 mm) out of 12 isolated and at 100%, 7 (19.17±0.31 mm) were inhibited. At 20% honey, no <em>Streptococcus pyogenes</em> was inhibited and at 100%, 4 (21.84±0.15 mm) out of 5 isolated were inhibited.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Locally produced crude honey may be used as a source of an effective antibacterial agent for wound management.</p> V. U. Usanga, M. O. Elom, N. O. Umoh, A. Nworie, B. N. Ukwah, M. E. Kalu, S. O. Azi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 23 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 In vitro Evaluation of Spectrum of Antimicrobial Activities of Leaves and Stem Bark Extracts of Alchornea cordifolia against Some Pathogenic Clinical Isolates from University of Uyo Medical Centre <p>Antimicrobial activities of the leaves and stem bark in aqueouse and ethanol extracts of <em>Alchornea cordifolia </em>were evaluated using tube dilution assay to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) of the plant parts and to determine spectrum of activities considering the antimicrobial effect on Gram positive, Gram negative and yeast (<em>Candida albicans</em>), these organisms are known to be pathogenic in nature. Results showed leaves extracts, both aqueouse and ethanol exerted higher activities than the stem bark extracts with MIC values ranging from 1.95 mg/mL – 15.63 mg/mL, although the stem bark extract exhibited good inhibitory activities as well with MIC values ranging from 3.91 mg/mL – 62.50 mg/mL. The antimicrobial spectrum of activities against the organisms was determined by the ratio (R) of MBC/MIC. The leaf extract is bactericidal against the Gram-positive and Gram negative organism with the exception of <em>E. coli </em>that MBC was not determined and, fungicidal against <em>Candida albicans</em> with (R) MBC/MIC ≤ 2. The stem bark extracts were bactericidal against all the Gram positive organisms but bacteriostatic against <em>Salmonella spp </em>and fungistatic against <em>Candida albicans </em>with (R) MBC/MIC ≥ 2. This study revealed that the aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaf and stem bark of <em>A. cordifolia</em> plant exhibited strong antibacterial activities on <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus Subtilis</em>, (Gram positive), <em>Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, <em>Salmonella spp </em>(Gram negative) and also exhibit anti-fungal activity against the <em>Candida albicans</em>. The leaf extract exhibited broad antimicrobial spectrum with bactericidal activities against Gram positive, Gram negative and yeast (<em>Candida albicans</em>).</p> A. A. Agboke, I. F. Ubak, C. N. Nwosu, M. H. Ekanem, M. A. Momoh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 24 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Transfusion Transmitted Infections among Blood Donors at a Tertiary Health Facility in Southwest, Nigeria <p>It was a major breakthrough for human medicine when Landsteiner discovered the ABO blood group system. But with the discovery of ABO and Rhesus systems, this major hindrance to safe blood transfusion- and by extension surgery- was effectively put behind humanity. Centuries after this, humanity is faced another kind of challenge to safe blood transfusion- transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs), particularly in developing nations of the world. Though lots of infections are transmissible through transfusion, the focus of this study was HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of these TTIs (HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis) among intending blood donors at a tertiary health facility in Ekiti State, southwest, Nigeria. The data of 150 intending blood donors at the said tertiary health facility were retrospectively retrieved and analysed. One hundred and twenty (80%) of the subjects were males, while 30 (20%) were females. The age of the subjects ranged between 18 and 55 years. Thirty-four (22.7%) of the subjects had TTIs, while 116 (77.3%) were negative to all the TTIs of interest for this study (HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis). Out of the 34 subjects who had TTIs, 2 (1.3%) tested positive for HIV, 18 (12%) for HBV; 10 (6.7%) for HCV and 4 (2.7%) for syphilis. Twenty-nine (85.3%) of the subjects who had TTIs were males, while 5 (14.7%) were females. An overall TTI sero-prevalence of 2.7% is rather on the high side and should serve as a wake-up call to all concerned authorities in the State to design enlightenment programme that will reduce the sero-prevalence of TTIs.</p> G. O. Daramola, H. A. Edogun, O. Alex-Abioudun, Q. M. Umukoro, A. O. Ojerinde, O. D. Ajayi, A. Fatoki, A. H. Egbebi, O. O. Ogunfolakan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000