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Replication-competent oncolytic viruses (OVs) have been widely employed as vectors for cancer therapy because they possess the ability to selectively infect, replicate in and destroy tumor cells, while sparing their normal counterparts. Among OVs, the Rodent protoparvovirus 1 (RoPV) species within the Parvoviridae family deserves special consideration for its promising anticancer properties. Rodent inhabiting members such as the rat H-1PV virus attract high levels of interest as novel anticancer agents, because they can replicate autonomously in oncogene-transformed cells and exert both oncolytic effects in various cell cultures and animal models, while being non-pathogenic for humans. The H-1PV parvoviral capsid has been engineered to improve its affinity for tumor cells for greater oncosuppressive effects with an entry deficient three-dimensional (3D) Insilico model of the H-1PV wild-type capsid developed for increased affinity of the virus to pancreatic tumor cells; resulting in enhanced NK cell-mediated killing of pancreatic tumor cells. This review explains the anticancer properties of oncolytic parvoviruses, the bioethical issues associated with their use as therapeutic agents and the prospects of parvovirus-based cancer immunotherapy to explore new prospects of treatments for human carcinoma.