Temporal Appraisal and Molecular Characterization of Escherichia coli from Oyun River, Kwara State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Olatunji Matthew Kolawole
Oluwasanmi Anuoluwapo Adeyemi

Abstract

Introduction: Escherichia coli, an indicator of feacal contamination has been proven to be the cause of several disease outbreaks in countries and continents around the world.

Aim: To determine the genotypic variants of Escherichia coli present in Oyun River and provide information regarding the high-risk variants of E. coli in Oyun River.

Study Design: The study cuts across the two seasons of Nigeria’s tropical climate weather, being the peak of the Harmattan season and the onset of the Rainy season. Three sampling sites (Jimba Oja; Unilorin Dam and Oyun in Ilorin, Kwara State) along the River course were examined for three months (February – April).

Methodology: Heterotrophic counts, coli form counts and molecular characterization via PCR   using 16 sRNA primers, of water samples were done using standard microbiological and molecular methods.

Results: Bacteriological results showed monthly mean values of microbial counts, ranged from 23.5 x 106 – 45.17 x 106 cfu/mL and total coli form count ranged from 53 cfu/100 mL to 256 cfu/100 mLs, both of which exceed the WHO standards of 100 cfu/mL for total microbial count and <1 cfu/100 mLs for total coliforms. A total of forty-eight coliforms were isolated, thirty two of which were Escherichia coli. Sequencing and BLAST analysis of eleven of the isolates using NCBI’s online database revealed five different strains. They include: Escherichia coli FAP1 genome (9.1%); Escherichia coli strain ST2747 (54.5%); Escherichia coli strain EADK4 (9.1%); Escherichia coli strain ST540 (18.2%) and Escherichia coli strain NCM3722 (9.1%). Correlation of results with previous studies showed that most of the strains identified were pathogenic. The E. coli strains isolated, coupled with the bacterial load, coliform count and some physicochemical parameters of Oyun River makes it unsafe for public consumption if not treated. Efforts therefore should be made to treat the water before use, while making frantic efforts to prevent further contamination of Oyun River.

Keywords:
Oyun River, Escherichia coli, molecular characterization, 16S rRNA.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kolawole, O. M., & Adeyemi, O. A. (2020). Temporal Appraisal and Molecular Characterization of Escherichia coli from Oyun River, Kwara State, Nigeria. Journal of Advances in Microbiology, 20(3), 56-63. https://doi.org/10.9734/jamb/2020/v20i330228
Section
Original Research Article

References

Gleick PH, editor. Water in Crisis: A guide to the world's freshwater resources. Oxford University Press. Table 2.1. Water Reserves on the Earth. 1993;13.

UN – United Nations. World population prospects 2019 highlights. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs; 2019.
[Accessed 4 March 2020]
Available:https://population.un.org/wpp/Publications/Files/WPP2019_Highlights.pdf

NWC – National Water Commission. Australian environmental water management report. NWC, Canberra; 2010.
[Accessed 30 May, 2019]
Available:http://archive.nwc.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/22169/Australian-environmental-water-management-framework-criteria.pdf

Sahay RN. Integrated water resource management. Agrotech Press. 2014;260.

Hogan CM. Water pollution. Encyclopedia of Earth. Topic ed. Mark McGinley; ed. in Chief C. Cleveland. National Council on Science and the Environment, Washington, DC; 2010.

WHO – World Health Organization. Drinking Water; 2019.
[Accessed 2 February. 2020]
Available:https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/drinking-water

Cheesbrough M. District laboratory practice for tropical countries. Cambridge University Press. Low Price Edition. 2016; 62–70.

Okonko IO, Ogunjobi AA, Kolawale OO, Babatunde S, Oluwole I, Ogunnusi TA, Adejoyi OD, Fajobi EA. Comparative studies and microbial risk assessment of a water samples used for processing frozen sea foods in Ijora- Olopa, Lagos State, Nigeria. Electronic Journal of Environ-mental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2009;8(6):408-415.

APHA – American Public Health Association. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 21st Edn. APHA, Washington DC; 2017.
[Accessed 20 December 2019]
Available:https://www.awwa.org/Store/Standard-Methods-for-the
-Examination-of-Water-and-Wastewater-23rd-Edition/ProductDetail/65266295.

Willey JM, Sherwood LM, Woolverton CJ. Editors. Prescott, Harley and Klein’s Microbiology. McGraw Hill, NY. 2017;7: 966.

Müller EE, Ehlers MM, Grabow WOK. The occurrence of E. coli 0157:H7 in South African water sources intended for direct and indirect human consumption. Water Research. 2017;35:3085-3088.

Müller EE, Grabow WOK, Ehlers MM. Immunomagnetic separation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from environmental and wastewater in South Africa. Water South Africa. 2003;29(4): 427-432.

O’Connor DR. Report of the walkerton inquiry. Part 1. The events of May 2000 and Related Issues. Toronto. The Walkerton Inquiry. 2002;504.
[Accessed 4 March, 2020]
Available:http://www.attorneygeneral.jus.gov.on.ca/english/about/pubs/walkerton(26.03.2015

Bettelheim KA, Beutin L. Rapid laboratory identification and characterization of verocytotoxigenic (shigatoxin – producing) Escherichia coli (VTEC/STEC). Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2003;95:205-217.

ECDC – European centre for disease prevention and control. Outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O104:H4 2011 in the EU. 2011;27:07.
[Accessed 4 March, 2020]
Available:https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files
/media/en/publications/Publications/110712_TER_Risk_Assessement_Ecoli.pdf

Robinson T, Deluyker H, Editors: EFSA’s Food and feed safety crisis preparedness and response. EFSA Journal 2012;10(5): e1051.
DOI: 10.2903/j.efsa.2012.e1051

Manges AR, Tabor H, Tellis P, Vincent C, Tellier P. Endemic and epidemic lineages of Escherichia coli that cause urinary tract infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2018;14(10):1575-1583

Effler P, Isaacson M, Arntzen L, Heenan R, Canter P, Barrett T, Lee L, Mamba C, Vine W, Zaidi A, Griffin PM. Factors contributing to the emergence of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7: 812-819.

Cunin P, Tedjouka E, Germani Y, Ncharre C, Bercoin R, Morvan J. An epidemic of blood diarrhoea: Escherichia coli O157 emerging in Cameroon? Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1999;5:285-290.

Ogunsanya TL, Rotimi VO, Adenuga A. study of the aetiological agents of childhood diarrhoea in Lagos. Nigerian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 1994;40: 10-14.

Renter DG, Sargeabt JM, Oberst RD, Samadpour M. Diversity, Frequency and persistence of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in Cow-Calf farms. Applied and Environ-mental Microbiology. 2003:69:542-547.

Awomeso AJ, Taiwo AM, Orebiyi OE, Orekoya AO, Odjegba EE. Effect of untreated sewage dump on the quality of groundwater in Iddo Community, Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Science and Environment. 2010;10(1):98-106.

Kolawole OM, Olayode JA, Durowoade KA, Ajibike KA, Kolawole CF. Evaluation of quality and toxicological aspects of river water treated with slaked lime. Journal of Applied Biosciences. 2009;22:1299–1305.

Kolawole OM, Kolawole TA, Olayemi AB, Okoh AI. Assessment of water quality in Asa River (Nigeria) and its indigenous Clarias gariepinus fish. International Journal for Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011;8(11):4332-4352

WHO – World Health Organization. rapid assessment of drinking water quality In The Federal Republic of Nigeria - country report of the Pilot project implemented in, By Ince M, et al.; 2004–2005.
[ISBN 978 92 4 150060 9. 2010]

WHO - World Health Organization. Water pollution control - A guide to the use of water quality management principles. First Edition 1997. Printed in Great Britain by St Edmundsbury Press. Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk. 526 pages. ISBN 0419229108 published on behalf of WHO by F & FN Spon; 1997.

Solomon EB, Yaron S, Mathews KR. Transmission of Escherichia coli 0157: H7 from contaminated manure and irrigation water to lettuce plant tissue and its subsequent internalization. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2002;68(1): 97-400.

Xavier BB, Vervoort J, Stewardson A, Adriaenssens N, Coenen S, Harbarth S, Goossens H, Malhotra-Kumar S. Complete genome sequences of nitrofurantoin-sensitive and -resistant Escherichia coli ST540 and ST2747 Strains. Genome Announcement. 2014:2(2):e00239-14.

Suardana IW. Analysis of nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene of novel Escherichia coli Strains isolated from feces of human and Bali cattle. Journal of Nucleic Acids. 2014;475754:7.

Loh KD, Gyaneshwar P, Papadimitriou EM, Fong R, Kim K, Parales R, Zhou Z, Inwood W, Kustu SA. Previously undescribed pathway for Pyrimidine catabolism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 2006;10(13):5114-5119.